Arbor, Vol 192, No 779 (2016)

Contribución de las leguminosas a la investigación genética. Una perspectiva histórica desde la genética mendeliana a la secuenciación masiva


https://doi.org/10.3989/arbor.2016.779n3008

Marcelino Pérez de la Vega
Universidad de León, España

Resumen


Es conocido que Mendel escogió los guisantes como material para realizar los experimentos que son la piedra fundacional de la Genética. Pero es menos conocido que Mendel también experimentó con otras leguminosas con menos éxito, o que Darwin experimentó con leguminosas. Durante la primera década del siglo XX, los guisantes fueron el material predilecto para comprobar los resultados obtenidos por Mendel. Después, la Genética se desarrolló utilizando prioritariamente otros organismos eucariotas o microorganismos. Aun así, las leguminosas forman parte de los materiales en los que Vavilov se basó para desarrollar su Ley de las Series Homólogas en la Variación. Las leguminosas son el modelo para el estudio de las relaciones simbióticas planta-microorganismo que posibilitan la fijación de nitrógeno atmosférico. Esto las ha convertido en uno de los modelos biológicos en la era de la genómica. En el último lustro se ha terminado la secuenciación de varios genomas de especies cultivadas de leguminosas y muchos otros lo serán en los próximos años. Como consecuencia de ello la cantidad de conocimientos teóricos y su aplicación a la mejora está aumentando exponencialmente.

Palabras clave


leguminosas; guisantes; Mendel; Darwin; Vavilov

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Referencias


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