Arbor, Vol 193, No 786 (2017)

Gestión cinegética racional ligada a la praxis de la caza y la recolección. ¿Entelequia aristotélica o quimera?


https://doi.org/10.3989/arbor.2017.786n4004

Juan Mario Vargas Yáñez
Universidad de Málaga, España
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2841-5481

Miguel Ángel Farfán Aguilar
Universidad de Málaga / Biogea Consultores, España
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4617-6517

Jesús Duarte Duarte
Universidad de Málaga / Biogea Consultores, España
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4952-154X

John E. Fa
Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) / Manchester Metropolitan University, Reino Unido
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1572-9828

Resumen


Gestión cinegética racional ligada a la praxis de la caza y la recolección. ¿Entelequia aristotélica o quimera? Desde los albores de su historia filogenética, el consumo de proteínas de origen animal ha tenido gran relevancia en la evolución de los humanos. La caza cooperativa representa una estrategia evolutiva estable a partir del momento en que los cazadores paleolíticos se especializan en la persecución de grandes animales. Todo este proceso implica la adopción de decisiones relacionadas con la gestión de la caza, algunas de las cuales siguen siendo utilizadas por los cazadores-recolectores contemporáneos. En estas sociedades que todavía practican la caza como medio de subsistencia, la composición de sus respectivas dietas y las técnicas de explotación empleadas son explicables bajo supuestos teóricos contenidos en la Teoría del Forrajeo Óptimo (TFO). Con objeto de poner a prueba dicha teoría, se han tomado en consideración cuatro decisiones que implican la adopción de diferentes estrategias de gestión por parte de los cazadores-recolectores: I) qué comer, II) dónde y cómo buscar el alimento, III) cuáles son el tamaño y composición más adecuados del grupo de cazadores-recolectores y IV) qué pautas de manipulación y reparto de las presas son más eficientes. La TFO se ha puesto a prueba en diversas ocasiones y, en un alto porcentaje de los casos estudiados, sus predicciones se ajustan a lo observado en distintas sociedades cazadoras-recolectoras. Esto significa que la maximización de los rendimientos de captura a corto plazo es su principal preocupación, en lugar de comportarse como “depredadores prudentes” o realizar una selección pasiva de sus presas en función del tamaño, accesibilidad y abundancia de las mismas. Dicho comportamiento no niega que los cazadores-recolectores actúen como conservacionistas pero descarta que esa sea la principal preocupación de su modo de vida. No cabe duda de que los pueblos indígenas tienen un amplio conocimiento del medio, pero no está claro si lo utilizan para mantener un balance con la naturaleza o para ser cazadores más eficientes Es más probable que la extracción sostenible se deba a una baja presión de caza en zonas donde abundan las presas, lo que constituye un epifenómeno en lugar de una estrategia deliberada de conservación. A tenor de los datos disponibles, seguir manteniendo el mito del salvaje ecológicamente noble es tan falaz como peligroso de cara a la solución de sus problemas presentes y futuros. Dicha concepción errónea deriva, en parte, de confundir sostenibilidad y conservación. No obstante, resulta oportuno recordar que las conclusiones derivadas de la presente revisión tienen un valor estrictamente académico y no justifican juicios morales improcedentes respecto a los derechos de los cazadores-recolectores.

Palabras clave


Aprovechamiento; conservación; recursos renovables; sostenibilidad; teoría del forrajeo óptimo

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