Arbor, Vol 193, No 786 (2017)

Los seres humanos como depredadores: una visión general de las estrategias de depredación seguidas por cazadores con distintas motivaciones

Fredrik Dalerum
Universidad de Oviedo / University of Pretoria, South Africa / Stockholm University

Lourens H. Swanepoel
University of Venda, Sudáfrica


La teoría depredador-presa sugiere que los depredadores generalistas están vinculados a la estabilidad demográfica de las presas, mientras que los especialistas son desestabilizadores. En este artículo hemos hecho una revisión general de las consecuencias demográficas de diferentes estrategias de depredación y hemos intentado testar la hipótesis de que la caza de subsistencia se produce de forma oportunista, la caza de persecución sería la realizada por depredadores especializados y la caza recreativa por depredadores generalistas. Desde esta hipótesis, la caza de persecución tendría efectos desestabilizadores, mientras que los efectos de la caza de subsistencia y recreativa serían neutrales o estabilizadores. Hemos encontrado poco apoyo empírico para esta hipótesis, pero también es cierto que contamos con escasa información de campo. Los cazadores de recreo principalmente cazan de forma oportunista y la caza de persecución muestra una respuesta funcional de tipo III, es decir, disminuye la intensidad de presas cuando lo hace la abundancia de presas y aumenta dicha intensidad ante cierto nivel de abundancia de presas. Sugerimos que los cazadores de recreo limitan los efectos desestabilizadores sobre las poblaciones de caza y que la caza no es un método eficaz de eliminación completa de especies invasoras. Instamos a la realización de nuevos estudios que cuantifiquen las respuestas de los cazadores a la abundancia de presas, en particular estudios que evalúen las respuestas de los cazadores de subsistencia y la persecución ilegal.

Palabras clave

Depredador-presa; respuesta funcional; caza; actividad cinegética; depredación

Texto completo:



Anderson, M. and Erlinge, S. (1977). Influence of predation on rodent populations. Oikos, 29, pp. 591-597.

Askey, P. J. and Johnston, N. T. (2013). Self-regulation of the Okanagan lake Kokanee recreational fishery: Dynamic angler effort response to varying fish abundance and productivity. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 33 (5), pp. 926-939.

Baxter, P. W. J., Sabo, J. L., Wilcox, C., McCarthy, M. A. and Possingham, H. P. (2008). Cost-effective suppression and eradication of invasive predators. Conservation Biology, 22 (1), pp. 89-98.

Berryman, A. A. (1992). The origins and evolution of predator-prey theory. Ecology, 73 (5), pp. 1530-1535.

Borg, B. L., Brainerd, S. M., Meier T. J. and Prugh, L. R. (2015). Impacts of breeder loss on social structure, reproduction, and population growth in a social canid. Journal of Animal Ecology, 84 (1), pp. 177-187. PMid:25041127

Cartmill, M. (1993). A View to a death in the morning: Hunting and nature through history. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Choquenot, D., Hone, J. and Saunders, G. (1999). Using aspects of predator-prey theory to evaluate helicopter shooting for feral pig control. Wildlife Research, 26 (3), pp. 251-261.

Corlett, A. T. (2007). The impact of hunting on the mammalian fauna in tropical Asian forests. Biotropica, 39 (3), pp. 292-303.

Creel, S. and Christianson, D. (2008). Relationships between direct predation and risk effects. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 23 (4), pp. 194-201. PMid:18308423

Creel, S. and Rotella, J. J. (2010). Meta-analysis of relationships between human off-take, total mortality, and population dynamics of grey wolves (Canis lupus). PLoS one, 5 (9), e12918. PMid:20927363 PMCid:PMC2947495

Dickson, B., Hutton, J. and Adams, W. M. (eds.) (2009). Recreational hunting, conservation and rural livelihoods: Science and practice. London: John Wiley and Sons.

Eggleston, D. B., Parsons, D. M., Kellison, G. T., Plaia, G. R. and Johnson, E. G. (2008). Functional response of sport divers to lobsters with application to fisheries management. Ecological Applications, 18 (1), pp. 258-272.

Gigliotti, L. M. (2000). A classification scheme to better understand satisfaction of Black Hills deer hunters: The role of harvest success. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 5 (1), pp. 32-51.

Hanski, I., Hanson, L. and Henttonen, H. (1991). Specialist predators, generalist predators, and the microtine rodent cycle. Journal of Animal Ecology, 60, pp. 353-367.

Hassel, M. P. and Comins, H. N. (1978). Sigmoid functional responses and population stability. Theoretical Population Biology, 14 (1), pp. 62–67.

Heberlein, T. and Kuentzel, W. F. (2002). Too many hunters or not enough deer? Human and biological determinants of hunter satisfaction and quality. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 7 (4), pp. 229-250.

Hilborn, R., Walters, C. J. and Ludwig, D. (1995). Sustainable exploitation of renewable resources. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 26 (1), pp. 45- 67.

Holling, C. S. (1959a). The components of predation as revealed by a study of small mammal predation of the European Pine Sawfly. The Canadian Entomologist, 91 (5), pp. 293-320.

Holling, C. S. (1959b). Some characteristics of simple types of predation and parasitism. The Canadian Entomologist, 91 (7), pp. 385-398.

Hone, J. (2004). Wildlife Damage Control: Principles for the Management of Damage by Vertebrate Pests. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing. PMCid:PMC498086

Inskip, C. and Zimmermann, A. (2009). Human-felid conflict: A review of patterns and priorities worldwide. Oryx, 43 (1), pp. 18-34.

Jeschke J. M., Kopp, M. and Tollrian, R. (2004). Consumer-food systems: Why type I functional responses are exclusive to filter feeders. Biological Reviews, 79 (2), pp. 337-349.

Johnson, B. M. and Carpenter, S. R. (1994). Functional and numerical responses: A framework for fisher-angler interactions? Ecological Applications, 4 (4), pp. 808- 821.

Johnson, C. (2006). Australia's Mammal Extinctions: A 50000 Year History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kenney, J. S., Smith, J. L. D., Starfield, A. M. and McDougal, C. W. (1995). The long-term effects of tiger poaching on population viability. Conservation Biology, 9 (5), pp. 1127-1133.

Korpimäki, E. and Krebs, C. J. (1996). Predation and population cycles of small mammals. BioScience, 46 (10), pp. 754- 764.

Lima, S. (1998). Non-lethal effects in the ecology of predator-prey interactions. BioScience, 48 (1), pp. 25-34.

Lindén, H. (1990). Patterns of grouse shooting in Finland. Ornis Scandinavica, 22, pp. 241-244.

Lindsey, P. A. (2008). Trophy hunting in sub Saharan Africa: Economic scale and conservation significance. In: Baldus, R. D. Damm, G. R. and Wollscheid, K. (eds.). Best Practices in Sustainable Hunting. A Guide to Best Practices from Around the World. Budakeszi: CIC – International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation, pp. 41-47.

Maldonado-Chaparro, A. and Blumstein D. T. (2008). Management implications of capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) social behaviour. Biological Conservation, 141 (8), pp. 1945-1952.

Marchini, S. and MacDonald, D. W. (2012). Predicting ranchers' intention to kill jaguars: Case studies in Amazonia and Pantanal. Biological Conservation, 147 (1), pp. 213-221.

Marlowe, F. W. (2005). Hunter-gatherers and human evolution. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News and Reviews, 14 (2), pp. 54-67.

Martin, P. S. (1989). Prehistoric overkill: A global model. In: Martin, P. S. and Klein, R. G. (eds.). Quaternary extinctions: A prehistoric revolution. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, pp. 354-403.

Mattsson, L. (1990). Hunting in Sweden: Extent, economic values and structural problems. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 5 (1-4), pp. 563-573.

McJunkin, J. W., Zelmer, D. A. and Applegate, R. D. (2005). Population dynamics of wild turkeys in Kansas (Meleagris gallopavo): Theoretical considerations and implications of rural mail carrier survey (RMCS) data. The American Midland Naturalist, 154 (1), pp. 178- 187.[0178:PDOWTI]2.0.CO;2

McKechnie, S., Fletcher, D., Newman, J., Scott, D., Bragg, C. and Moller, H. (2010). Modeling harvest intensity of sooty shearwater chicks by Rakiura M?ori in New Zealand. Journal of Wildlife Management, 74 (4), pp. 828-842.

Murray, L. G., Hinz, H. and Kaiser, M. J. (2011). Functional responses of fishers in the Isle of Man scallop fishery. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 430, pp. 157-169.

Peres, C. C. (2000). Effects of subsistence hunting on vertebrate community structure in Amazonian forests. Conservation Biology, 14 (1), pp. 240-253.

Prins, H. H. T. and Vanderjeugd, H. P. (1993). Herbivore population crashes and woodland structure in East-Africa. Journal of Ecology, 81, pp. 305-314.

Real, L. A. (1977). The kinetics of functional response. The American Naturalist, 111 (978), pp. 289-300.

Reid, D., Krebs, C. J. and Kenney, A. J. (1997). Patterns of predation on non-cyclic lemmings. Ecological Monographs, 67, pp. 89-108.[0089:POPONL]2.0.CO;2

Reynolds, J. C. and Tapper, S. C. (1996). Control of mammalian predators in game management and conservation. Mammalian Review, 26 (2-3), pp. 127-155.

Ridpath, M. G. and Waithman, J. (1988). Controlling feral Asian water buffalo in Australia. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 16 (4), pp. 385–390.

Short, J. and Turner, B. (2005). Control of feral cats for nature conservation. IV. Population dynamics and morphological attributes of feral cats at Shark Bay, Western Australia. Wildlife Research, 32 (26), pp. 489-501.

Sinclair, A. R. E., Fyrxell, J. M. and Cughley, G. (2006). Wildlife ecology, conservation, and management (Second edition). Oxford: Blackwell publishing.

Solomon, M. E. (1949). The natural control of animal populations. Journal of Animal Ecology, 18, pp. 1-35.

Surovell, T., Waguespack, N. and Brantingham, P. P. (2005). Global archaeological evidence for proboscidean overkill. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102 (17), pp. 6231-6236. PMid:15829581 PMCid:PMC1087946

Swanepoel, L., Lindsey, P., Somers, M. J., Van Hoven, W. and Dalerum, F. (2014). The relative importance of trophy harvest and retaliatory killing for large carnivores: South African leopards as a case study. South African Journal of Wildlife Research, 44 (2), pp. 115-134.

Swanepoel, L., Somers, M. J. and Dalerum, F. (2015). Functional responses of retaliatory killing versus recreational sport hunting of leopards in South Africa. PLoS one, 10 (4), e0125539. PMid:25905623 PMCid:PMC4408058

Swenson, J. E., Sandegren, F., Soderberg, A., Bjarvall, A., Franzen, R. and Wabakken, P. (1997). Infanticide caused by hunting of male bears. Nature, 386 (6624), pp. 450-451.

Taylor, R. J. (1984). Predation. New York: Chapman & Hall.

Thorn, M., Green, M., Dalerum, F., Bateman, P. W. and Scott, D. W. (2012). What drives human-carnivore conflict in the North West Province of South Africa? Biological Conservation, 150 (1), pp. 23-32.

Treves, A. and Karanth, K. U. (2003). Human-carnivore conflict and perspectives on carnivore management worldwide. Conservation Biology, 17 (6), pp. 1491– 1499.

Van Deelen, T. and Etter, D. (2003). Effort and the functional response of deer hunters. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 8 (2), pp. 97-108.

Whitman, K., Starfield A. M., Quadling, H. S. and Packer, C. (2004). Sustainable trophy hunting in African lions. Nature, 428 (6979), pp. 175-178. PMid:14990967

Willebrand, T., Hörnell-Willebrand, M. and Asmyhr, L. (2011). Willow grouse bag size is more sensitive to variation in hunter effort than to variation in willow grouse density. Oikos, 120 (11), pp. 1667-1673.

Wuketits, F. M. and Antweiler, C. (2004). Handbook of evolution (vol 1: The evolution of human societies and cultures). Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.

Copyright (c) 2018 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Licencia de Creative Commons
Esta obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.

Contacte con la revista

Soporte técnico