Arbor, Vol 193, No 786 (2017)

Los seres humanos como depredadores: una visión general de las estrategias de depredación seguidas por cazadores con distintas motivaciones


https://doi.org/10.3989/arbor.2017.786n4008

Fredrik Dalerum
Universidad de Oviedo / University of Pretoria, South Africa / Stockholm University
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9737-8242

Lourens H. Swanepoel
University of Venda, Sudáfrica
orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9955-8076

Resumen


La teoría depredador-presa sugiere que los depredadores generalistas están vinculados a la estabilidad demográfica de las presas, mientras que los especialistas son desestabilizadores. En este artículo hemos hecho una revisión general de las consecuencias demográficas de diferentes estrategias de depredación y hemos intentado testar la hipótesis de que la caza de subsistencia se produce de forma oportunista, la caza de persecución sería la realizada por depredadores especializados y la caza recreativa por depredadores generalistas. Desde esta hipótesis, la caza de persecución tendría efectos desestabilizadores, mientras que los efectos de la caza de subsistencia y recreativa serían neutrales o estabilizadores. Hemos encontrado poco apoyo empírico para esta hipótesis, pero también es cierto que contamos con escasa información de campo. Los cazadores de recreo principalmente cazan de forma oportunista y la caza de persecución muestra una respuesta funcional de tipo III, es decir, disminuye la intensidad de presas cuando lo hace la abundancia de presas y aumenta dicha intensidad ante cierto nivel de abundancia de presas. Sugerimos que los cazadores de recreo limitan los efectos desestabilizadores sobre las poblaciones de caza y que la caza no es un método eficaz de eliminación completa de especies invasoras. Instamos a la realización de nuevos estudios que cuantifiquen las respuestas de los cazadores a la abundancia de presas, en particular estudios que evalúen las respuestas de los cazadores de subsistencia y la persecución ilegal.

Palabras clave


Depredador-presa; respuesta funcional; caza; actividad cinegética; depredación

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Referencias


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