Arbor, Vol 185, No 738 (2009)

La ciencia como institución social: clásicos y modernos institucionalismos en la sociología de la ciencia


https://doi.org/10.3989/arbor.2009.738n1045

Manuel Fernández Esquinas
Instituto de Estudios Sociales Avanzados. CSIC, España

Cristóbal Torres Albero
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, España

Resumen


El artículo se refiere a los estudios sociales que han tratado a la ciencia como institución social. Para ello recurre a los marcos de análisis de la sociología institucional, tanto en su versión clásica como en el llamado nuevo institucionalismo sociológico. Con este bagaje se pasa revista a la discusión que en la sociología de la ciencia se ha producido sobre el conjunto de reglas, valores, pautas de comportamiento y rasgos organizativos que caracterizan a la ciencia como actividad social. En el análisis de la perspectiva clásica se establecen los límites del esquema normativo de los CUDEOS establecido por Robert Merton y se le despoja del sobrepeso funcionalista. La aproximación a las corrientes actuales del institucionalismo no sólo consigue una nueva reinterpretación de la estructura normativa de la ciencia, sino que también permite integrar en el análisis la nueva configuración de la I+D que se deriva de la influencia del entorno y de la dinámica de cambio intrínseco de la institución científica en las sociedades contemporáneas avanzadas. El corolario que se alcanza apunta la existencia en estos momentos de un “giro institucional” en la sociología de la ciencia que sustituye al “giro cognitivo” que se produjo en las dos últimas décadas del siglo pasado.

Palabras clave


Sociología de la ciencia; instituciones sociales; normas sociales; nuevo institucionalismo

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