Los seres humanos como depredadores: una visión general de las estrategias de depredación seguidas por cazadores con distintas motivaciones




Palabras clave:

Depredador-presa, respuesta funcional, caza, actividad cinegética, depredación


La teoría depredador-presa sugiere que los depredadores generalistas están vinculados a la estabilidad demográfica de las presas, mientras que los especialistas son desestabilizadores. En este artículo hemos hecho una revisión general de las consecuencias demográficas de diferentes estrategias de depredación y hemos intentado testar la hipótesis de que la caza de subsistencia se produce de forma oportunista, la caza de persecución sería la realizada por depredadores especializados y la caza recreativa por depredadores generalistas. Desde esta hipótesis, la caza de persecución tendría efectos desestabilizadores, mientras que los efectos de la caza de subsistencia y recreativa serían neutrales o estabilizadores. Hemos encontrado poco apoyo empírico para esta hipótesis, pero también es cierto que contamos con escasa información de campo. Los cazadores de recreo principalmente cazan de forma oportunista y la caza de persecución muestra una respuesta funcional de tipo III, es decir, disminuye la intensidad de presas cuando lo hace la abundancia de presas y aumenta dicha intensidad ante cierto nivel de abundancia de presas. Sugerimos que los cazadores de recreo limitan los efectos desestabilizadores sobre las poblaciones de caza y que la caza no es un método eficaz de eliminación completa de especies invasoras. Instamos a la realización de nuevos estudios que cuantifiquen las respuestas de los cazadores a la abundancia de presas, en particular estudios que evalúen las respuestas de los cazadores de subsistencia y la persecución ilegal.


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Cómo citar

Dalerum, F., & Swanepoel, L. H. (2017). Los seres humanos como depredadores: una visión general de las estrategias de depredación seguidas por cazadores con distintas motivaciones. Arbor, 193(786), a419. https://doi.org/10.3989/arbor.2017.786n4008