Arbor, Vol 188, No 754 (2012)

Retos y tendencias del ocio digital: Transformación de dimensiones, experiencias y modelos empresariales


https://doi.org/10.3989/arbor.2012.754n2011

Ercilia García Álvarez
Universitat Rovira i Virgili. Facultad de Geografía y Turismo, España

Jordi López Sintas
Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Facultat d’Economia i Empresa, España

Alexandra Samper Martínez
Universitat Rovira i Virgili. Facultad de Geografía y Turismo, España

Resumen


Las tecnologías digitales están transformando el ocio y la manera en la que se organiza. A pesar de su importancia, son escasos los trabajos que han abordado su estudio desde el mundo académico. En este artículo realizamos una revisión extensa de la literatura sobre ocio y tecnologías digitales con el objeto de contribuir al conocimiento elaborando un marco interpretativo del ocio digital. Proponemos que las tecnologías digitales aportan una nueva dimensión al ocio que altera sus propiedades dicotómicas tradicionales, situando a individuos y empresas entre una comprensión holística o separada de los mundos naturales y los construidos digitalmente. En el primer caso se borran los límites entre las propiedades dicotómicas del ocio y el trabajo, no así en el segundo. Una u otra concepción se evidencia en los diferentes grados en los que las transformaciones tienen lugar entre los individuos y en cómo las empresas resuelven los retos que aparecen.

Palabras clave


Ocio digital; brecha generacional; brecha social; interacción social; identidad móvil; género; materialización ocio digital; digitalización ocio tradicional; coproducción ocio

Texto completo:


PDF

Referencias


Abbott-Chapman, J. y Robertson, M. (2002): “Youth, Leisure and Home: Space, Place and Identity”, Loisir et Société Society and Leisure, 24(2), 485-506.

Bendon, M. (2011): “Coming in 2014: a Playfish amusement park!”. Recuperado 2 de abril de 2011, desde http://playfish.wordpress.com/2011/04/01/comingin-2014-a-playfish-amusement-park/

Boczkowski, P. J. (2010): “Making sense of emerging phenomena and rethinking existing concepts”, Information, Communication & Society, 13 (4), 470- 484. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13691181003639841

Bogart, L. (1989): Press and public: who reads what, when, where, and why in American newspapers, Hillsdale, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates.

Breen, M. (2010): “Digital determinism: culture industries in the USA-Australia Free Trade Agreement”, New Media Society, 12, 657-676. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1461444809342774

Bretonès, D. D.; Quinio, B. y Réveillon, G. (2010): “Bridging virtual and real worlds: enhancing outlying clustered value creations”, Journal of Strategic Marketing, 18 (7), 613-625. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0965254X.2010.529157

Bryce, J. (2001): “The technological transformation of leisure”, Social Science Computer Review, 19(1), 7-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089443930101900102

Bucy, E. P. (2000): “Social access to the Internet”, The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 5, 50-61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/108118000568967

Buse, C. E. (2009): “When you retire, does everything become leisure? Information and communication technology use and the work/leisure boundary in retirement”, New Media & Society, 11(7), 1143-1161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1461444809342052

Calvert, S. L. (2005): “Cognitive effects of video games”, en J. Raessens y J. Goldstein (eds.), Handbook of Computer Games Studies, Cambridge MA: MIT Press, pp. 125-131.

Campbell, S. W. y Kwak, N. (2010): “Mobile Communication and Civic Life: Linking Patterns of Use to Civic and Political Engagement”, Journal of Communication, 60(3), 536-555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2010.01496.x

Carr, D.; Schott, G.; Burn, A. y Buckingham, D. (2004): “Doing game studies: A multi-method approach to the study of textuality, interactivity, and narra tive space”, Media International Australia Incorporating Culture and Policy, 110, 19-30.

Cassell, J. y Jenkins, H. (1998): “Chess for girls?: Feminism and computer games”, en J. Cassel y H. Jenkins (eds.), From Barbie to Mortal Kombat: Gender and Computer Games, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Colwell, J.; Grady, C. y Rhaiti, S. (1995): “Computer games, self-esteem, and gratification of needs in adolescents”, Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 5, 195-206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/casp.2450050308

Cox, A. M.; Clough, P. D. y Marlow, J. (2008): “Flickr: a first look at user behaviour in the context of photography as serious leisure”, Information Research, 13 (1). Recuperado 11 abril de 2011, desde http://informationr.net/ir/13-1/paper336.html.

Cruz, J. (2011): “El poder pasa del editor al lector”, El País, 14 de marzo. (Recuperado el 14 de marzo de 2011, desde http://www.elpais.com/articulo/reportajes/poder/pasa/editor/lector/elpepusocdmg/20110313elpdmgrep_4/Tes).

De Kort, Y. A. W.; IJsselsteijn, W. A. y Gajadhar, B. J. (2007): “People, Places, and Play: A research framework for digital game experience in a sociospatial context”, en B. Akira (Ed.), Situated Play: Proceedings of the 2007 Digital Games Research Association Conference, Tokyo: The University of Tokyo, pp. 823-830. (Retrieved from http://www.digra.org/dl/display_html?chid=07311.21038.pdf).

Delamere, F. M. y Shaw, S. M. (2008): “They see it as a guy’s game: The politics of gender in digital games”, Leisure/ Loisir, 32(2), 279.

DiMaggio, P. y Hargittai, E. (2001): “From the ‘Digital Divide’ to ‘Digital Inequality’: Studying Internet Use as Penetration Increases”, Working Paper Series, 19, Princeton, N.J.: Center for Arts and Cultural Policy Studies, Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University.

DiMaggio, P.; Hargittai, E.; Celeste, C. y Shafer, S. (2004): “Digital inequality: From unequal access to differentiated use”, en K. Neckerman (Ed.), Social inequality, New York: Russell Sage, pp. 355-400.

DiMaggio, P.; Hargittai, E.; Neuman, W. y Robinson, J. (2001): “Social implications of the Internet”, Annual Review of Sociology, 27, 307-336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.27.1.307

Douglas, M. y Isherwood, B. (1996): The World of Goods, London, UK: Routledge.

Du, Y. y Martin, B. (2008): “Electronic Media and Leisure Time Reading: Responses of School Librarians”, en IASL 2008 Conference. ISSN 0257-3229.

Echeverría, J. (2009): “Cultura digital y memoria en red”, ARBOR Ciencia, Pensamiento y Cultura, CLXXXV 737 mayojunio, 559-567, ISSN: 0210-1963.

Engelen, J. J. (2008): “A Rapidly Growing Electronic Publishing Trend: Audiobooks for Leisure and Education”, en L. Chan y S. Mornati (eds.), Open Scholarship: Authority, Community and Sustainability in the Age of Web 2.0. ELPUB2008 Conference on Electronic Publishing, Toronto, Canada.

English-Lueck, J. A. (1998): “Technology and social change: The effects on family and community”, COSSA Congressional Seminar. Recuperado 19 de junio 2010 desde http://www.sjsu.edu/depts/anthropology/svcp/CossaP.htm.

Fulton, C. (2009): “Quid Pro Quo: Information Sharing in Leisure Activities”, Librarry Trends, 57(4), 753-768.

García Álvarez, E. y López-Sintas, J. (2008): “La cinematografía ante el reto audiovisual: Políticas para mejorar la eficiencia productiva y reducir los fallos de comercialización”, en López, J. y Padrós, C. (Dirs.), Cinco ensayos de derecho y economía del cine, Barcelona: Editorial Atelier, pp. 11-42.

Gershuny, J. y Fisher, K. (1999): “Leisure”, en Halsey, A. H. y Webb, J. (eds.), Twentieth Century British Social Trends (3rd Edition), London: Macmillan Publishers.

Griffiths, M. (1997): “Violent video games and aggression: A review of the literature”, Aggression and Violent Behavior”, 4, 203-212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1359-1789(97)00055-4

Griffiths, M. y Light, B. (2008): “Social networking and digital gaming media convergence: Classification and its consequences for appropriation”, Information Systems Frontiers, 10, 447-459. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10796-008-9105-4

Grimes, S. M. (2006): “Online multiplayer games: a virtual space for intellectual property debates?”, New Media & Society, 8(6), 969-990. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1461444806069651

Gunter, B. (2005): “Psychological effects of videogames”, en J. Raessens y J. Goldstein (eds.), HandBook of Computer Games Games Studies, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hargittai, E. y Hinnant, A. (2008): “Digital Inequality: Differences in Young Adults’ Use of the Internet”, Communication Research, 35(5), 602-621. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0093650208321782

Henwood, K. L. (1993): “Women and later life: The discursive construction of identities within family relationships”, Journal of Aging Studies, 7(3), 303-319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0890-4065(93)90017-E

Holderness, M. (1994): Welcome to the global village, London: Royal Geographical Society.

Iso-Ahola, S. E. (1997): “A psychological analysis of leisure and health”, en J. T. Haworth (Ed.), Work, leisure and well-being, New York: Routledge, pp. 117-130.

Jansz, J. y Martens, L. (2005): “Gaming at a LAN event: the social context of playing video games”, New Media & Society, 7(3), 333-355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1461444805052280

Johnson, N. F. (2009): “Cyber-relations in the Field of Home Computer Use for Leisure: Bourdieu and teenage technological experts”, E-Learning, 6(2), 187-197. http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/elea.2009.6.2.187

Johnson, T. J. y Kaye, B. K. (2003): “Around the World Wide Web in 80 Ways”, Social Science Computer Review, 21(3), 304-325. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0894439303253976

Jones, C.; Ramanau, R.; Cross, S. y Healing, G. (2010): “Net generation or Digital Natives: Is there a distinct new generation entering university?”, Computers & Education, 54, 722-732. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2009.09.022

Juniu, S. (2009): “The transformation of leisure”, Leisure/Loisir, 33(2), 463-478.

Jupp, B. y Bentley, T. (2001): “Surfing alone? E-commerce and social capital”, en J. Wilsdon (Ed.), Digital Futures: Living in a Dot-com World, London: Earthscan, pp. 97-118.

Kelly, J. R. (1978): “A revised paradigm of leisure choices”, Leisure Sciences: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 1(4), 345-363.

Kennedy, T. L. M. y Wellman, B. (2007): “The Networked Household”, Information, Communication & Society, 10(5), 645-670. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13691180701658012

Kennedy, T. L. M.; Wellman, B. y Klement, K. (2003): “Gendering the digital divide”, IT&Society, 1(5), 72-96.

Khouja, M. y Wang, Y. (2010): “The impact of digital channel distribution on the experience goods industry”. Recuperado 25 de mayo de 2011, desde http://econpapers.repec.org/.

Kiesler, S.; Sproull, L. y Eccles, J. S. (1985): “Pool, halls, chips, and war games: Women in the culture of computing”, Psychology of Women Quarterly, 9(4), 451-462. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1985.tb00895.x

Kozinets, R. V. (2010): Netnography, Doing Ethnographic Research Online, London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Kraut, R.; Kiesler, S.; Boneva, B.; Cummings, J.; Helgeson, V. y Crawford, A. (2002): “Internet Paradox Revisited”, Journal of Social Issues, 58(1), 49-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1540-4560.00248

Kraut, R.; Patterson, M.; Lundmark, V.; Kiesler, S.; Mukopadhyay, T. y Scherlis, W. (1998): “Internet paradox: A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being?”, American Psychologist, 53, 1017-1031. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.53.9.1017 PMid:9841579

Leung, L. (2001): “College student motives for chatting on ICQ”, New Media & Society, 3(4), 483-500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/14614440122226209

Leung, L. (2009): “User-generated content on the internet: an examination of gratifications, civic engagement and psychological empowerment”, New Media & Society, 11(8), 1327-1347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1461444809341264

Livingstone, S. M. (2002): Young People and New Media, London: Sage.

López-Sintas, J. (2011): “Acceso a las expresiones culturales e incentivos a la creación: Argumentos, evidencia e implicaciones”, en Padros Reig, C., y López Sintas, J. (Dirs.), El canon digital a debate: Revolución tecnológica y consumo cultural en un nuevo marco jurídico-económico, Barcelona: Atelier, pp. 43-65.

López-Sintas, J.; Filimon, N. y García-Álvarez, M. E. (2011): “A social theory of internet uses based on consumption sale and linkage needs”, Social Science Computer Review, en prensa.

Mäntymäki, M. y Merikivi, J. (2010): “Investigating the Drivers of the Continuous Use of Social Virtual Worlds”, 43rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii: IEEE Computer Society, pp. 1-10.

Margaix A. D. (2007): “Conceptos de web 2.0 y biblioteca 2.0: origen, definiciones y retos para las bibliotecas actuales”, El profesional de la información, 16(2), 95-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.3145/epi.2007.mar.01

Martinson, A. M.; Schwartz, N. y Vaughan, M. W. (2002): “Women’s experiences of leisure”, New Media & Society, 4(1), 29-49.

Mennecke, B. E.; Triplett, J. L.; Hassall, L. M.; Conde, Z. J. y Heer, R. (2011): “An Examination of a Theory of Embodied Social Presence in Virtual Worlds”, Decision Sciences, 42(2), 413-450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5915.2011.00317.x

Mokhtarian, P. L.; Salomon, I. y Handy, S. L. (2006): “The Impacts of Ict on leisure Activities and Travel: A Conceptual Exploration”, Transportation, 33(3), 263-289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11116-005-2305-6

Morrissey, B. (2010): “Game on for Brands: Marketers get serious about social gaming”, Adweek, 51. Recuperado 15 de enero de 2010, desde http://www.adweek.com/news/technology/gamebrands- 101281.

Neulinger, J. (1974): The psychology of leisure, Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.

Orchard, L. J. y Fullwood, C. (2010): “Current Perspectives on Personality and Internet Use”, Social Science Computer Review, 28(2), 155-169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0894439309335115

Patterson, A. (2011): “Social-networkers of the world, unite and take over: A meta-introspective perspective on the Facebook brand”, Journal of Business Research, en prensa.

Pereira, J. (1994): “Computers: The Gender Divide: A Tool for Women, a Toy for Men: Video Games Helps Boys Get a Head Start”, Wall Street Journal, 15 March: B1.

Prensky, M. (2001a): “Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants”. Recuperado 1 de febrero de 2011 de On the Horizon (MCB University Press, Vol. 9, No. 5), URL: www.marcprensky.com.

Prensky, M. (2001b): “Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants, Part II: Do They Really Think Differently?”. Recuperado 1 de febrero de 2011 de On the Horizon (MCB University Press, Vol. 9, No. 6), URL: www.marcprensky.com.

Putnam, R. D. (2000): Bowling Alone. The collapse and revival of American community, New York: Simon and Schuster.

Regner, T.; Barria, J. A.; Pitt, J. V. y Neville, B. (2010): “Governance of digital content in the era of mass participation”, Electronic Commerce Research, 10, 99-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10660-010-9043-3

Ritzer, G. y Jurgenson, N. (2010): “Production, Consumption, Prosumption”, Journal of Consumer Culture, 10(1), 13-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1469540509354673

Roberts, D. F.; Foehr, U. G. y Rideout, V. J. (2005): Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8-18 year-olds, Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation.

Robinson, J. P. y Godbey, G. (1997): Time for Life, University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Rosedale, P. (2007): “Prefacio”, Second Life the official guide, New Jersey: Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Schroeder, R. (2010): “Mobile phones and the inexorable advance of multimodal connectedness”, New Media & Society, 12(1), 75-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1461444809355114

Selwyn, N. (2004): “Reconsidering Political and Popular Understandings of the Digital Divide”, New Media Society, 6(3), 341-362. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1461444804042519

Siddiqui, Shakeel y Darach Turley (2006): “Extending the Self in a Virtual World”, Advances in Consumer Research, 33, 647-648.

Stald, G. (2011): “Mobile Identity: Youth, Identity, and Mobile Communication Media”, en David Buckingham (ed.), Youth, Identity, and Digital Media. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Series on Digital Media and Learning, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2008, 143-164.

Stebbins, R. A. (1992): Amateurs, Professionals, and Serious Leisure, Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University press.

Stebbins, R. A. (1997): “Casual leisure: a conceptual statement”, Leisure Studies, 16(1), 17-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/026143697375485

Turgeman-Goldschmidt, O. (2005): “Hackers’ Accounts”, Social Science Computer Review, 23(1), 8 -23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0894439304271529

Wilson, J. (1980): “Sociology of Leisure”, Annual Review of Sociology, 6, 21-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.06.080180.000321

Zillien, N. y Jäckel, M. (2007): “Digital Inequalities- Not just a Passing Phenomenon”, Anual Meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, San Francisco.




Copyright (c) 2012 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Licencia de Creative Commons
Esta obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.


Contacte con la revista arbor@csic.es

Soporte técnico soporte.tecnico.revistas@csic.es