Trabajo Social con los mayores en los Estados Unidos


  • Andrew E. Scharlach UCB


Palabras clave:

Trabajo Social, coordinación de la atención, los servicios de asistencia a los mayores, la política de asistencia gerontológica, la formación en Trabajo Social, Estados Unidos


Este artículo examina los servicios de asistencia a los mayores en los Estados Unidos. Estos servicios se prestan y se financian por medio de un sistema de atención que incluye al gobierno, al sector del voluntariado y al mercado privado. A causa de las necesidades básicas no satisfechas, de los sistemas mal coordinados y de las disparidades sociales y económicas entre los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, los servicios de asistencia social desempeñan un papel importante en la superación de las dificultades para alcanzar el funcionamiento óptimo y el bienestar emocional en la edad avanzada. La insuficiencia de trabajadores sociales con una adecuada formación y competentes en envejecimiento reduce la capacidad del Trabajo Social para satisfacer las necesidades de un número creciente de población mayor. El artículo analiza y discute los avances recientes en la formación de los trabajadores sociales en los Estados Unidos, avances que tienden a aumentar el número de trabajadores sociales competentes en envejecimiento e incluyen iniciativas para el desarrollo del curriculum relativo al envejecimiento, la capacitación, el desarrollo organizativo y la escolarización.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


American Association of Retired Persons Public Policy Institute (AARP PPI). (2009). Beyond 50.09 chronic care: A call to action for health reform. Downloaded from

American Health Care Association (2013). Trends in nursing facility characteristics [on line] [Date of consulting: September 30, 2013]. Available from

Applebum, R. (2012). Channeling: What we learned, what we didn't, and what it all means twenty-five years later. Generations, 36, 1, pp. 21-27.

Austin, C. D., Des Camp, E., Flux, D., McClelland, R. W. and Sieppert, J. (2005). Community development with older adults in their neighborhoods: The elder friendly communities program. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 86, 3, pp. 401-409.

Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37, 2, 122.

Barusch, A. S. (2013). Age-Friendly Cities: A Social Work Perspective. Journal of gerontological social work, 56, 6, pp. 465-472. PMid:23899117

Béland, F., Bergman, H., Lebel, P., Clarfield, A. M., Tousignant, P., Contandriopoulos, A. and Dallaire, L. (2006). A system of integrated care for older persons with disabilities in Canada: Results from a randomized controlled trial. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 61 A, 4, pp. 367-373.

Bernabei, R., Gambassi, G., Lapane, K., Landi, F., Gatsonis, C., Dunlop, R. and Mor, V. (1998). Management of pain in elderly patients with cancer: Correction. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 281, 2, p. 136 [on line]. Available from

Boult, C., Rassen, J., Rassen, A., Moore, R. J. and Robison, S. (2000). The effect of case management on the costs of health care for enrollees in Medicare Plus Choice plans: A randomized trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 48, pp. 996-1001. PMid:10968308

Boult, C., Green, A. F., Boult, L. B., Pacala, J. T., Snyder, C. and Leff, B. (2009). Successful models of comprehensive care for older adults with chronic conditions: evidence for the Institute of Medicine's "retooling for an aging America report. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 57, 12, pp. 2328-2337.

Bronstein, L.R., Brehl, P., Kropf, N., Volland, P., Barker, E. and Weiss, L. (2012). Educational, research and service enhancements in aging. Monograph commissioned by the NADD Gerontology task force and the John A. Hartford Foundation. Downloaded from

Brown, R. (2009). The Promise of Care Coordination: Models that Decrease Hospitalizations and Improve Outcomes for Medicare Beneficiaries with Chronic Illnesses. A Report Commissioned by The National Coalition on Care Coordination [on line]. Available from

Burau, V., Theobald, H. and Blank, R. H. (2007). Governing Home Care: A Cross-National Comparison. Northampton, MA: Edward Elger Publishing, Inc.

California Social Work Education Center (CalSWEC) (2006). Aging competencies [on line]. Available from:

CBO. (2012). Lessons from Medicare's demonstration projects on disease management, care coordination, and value-based payment. Issue Brief. Downloaded from

Challis D. J., Chesterman R., Luckett R., Stewart K. J. and Chessum R. (2002). Care management in social and primary health care: The Gateshead Community Care Scheme. Hampshire, UK: Ashgate.

Challis, D., Hughes, J., Berzins, K., Reilly, S., Abell, J., Stewart, K. and Bowns, I. (2011). Implementation of case management in long-term conditions in England: Survey and case studies. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy, 16, 1, pp. 8-13.

Congressional Budget Office (CBO). (2012). Lessons from Medicare's Demonstration Projects on Disease Management, Care Coordination, and Value-Based Payment [on line]. [Date of consulting: January 5, 2013].

Corrigan, P. W. (2006). Impact of consumer-operated services on empowerment and recovery of people with psychiatric disabilities. Psychiatric Services, 57, pp. 1493–1496.

Counsell, S. R., Callahan, C. M., Clark, D. O., Tu, W., Buttar, A. B., Stump, T. E. and Ricketts, G. D. (2007). Geriatric care management for low-income seniors: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 298, 22, pp. 2623-2633.

Cummings, S. M., Galambos, C., DeCoster, V. A. (2003). Predictors of MSW employment in gerontological practice. Educational Gerontology, 29, pp. 295-312.

Cummings, S. M., Alder, G., DeCoster, V. A. (2005). Factors influencing graduate social work students' interest in working with elders. Educational Gerontology, 31, pp. 643-655.

Damron-Rodriguez, J. (2005). Reality check: Social work. White House Conference on Aging Mini-Conference on Geriatric Healthcare Workforce Issues, July 16, 2005, Bethesda, MD.

Damron-Rodriguez, J. A. (2006). Moving ahead: Developing geriatric social work competencies. Handbook of social work in health and aging, pp. 1051-1068.

Dobriansky, P. J., Suzman, R. M. and Hodes, R. J. (2007). Why population aging matters: A global perspective. National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, US Department of State.

Enguidanos, S. M. and Jamison, P. M. (2006). Moving from tacit knowledge to evidence-based practice: the Kaiser Permanente community partners study. Home health care services quarterly, 25, 1-2, pp. 13-31. PMid:16803736

Enguidanos, S., Hoang, T., Hillary, K. A. and Haynes, R. L. (2011). Predictors of hospitalization among Home Health Managed Care patients. Home Health Care Management & Practice, 23, 5, pp. 363-372.

Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics. (2008). Older Americans 2008: Key indicators of well-being. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Feldman, P. H., Oberlink, M. R., Simantov, E. and Gursen, M. D. (2004). A tale of two older Americas: Community opportunities and challenges. Advantage Initiative 2003 National Survey of Adults Aged 65 and Older. New York, NY: Center for Home Care Policy and Research, Visiting Nurse Service of New York.

Freij, M., Weiss, L., Gass, J., Trezza, C., Wiener, A., Melly, J., Volland, P. (2011). «Just like I'm saving money in the bank»: Client perspectives on care coordination services. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 54, 7. PMid:21967141

Frey, W. H. (2007). Mapping the Growth of Older America: Seniors and Boomers in the Early 21st Century. Brookings Census 2000 Series. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Metropolitan Policy Program.

G8 Information Centre. (2000). G8 Turin Charter: Towards active ageing [on line]. [Date of consulting: September 30, 2013]. Available from:

Hodge, G. (2008). The geography of aging: Preparing communities for the surge in seniors. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.

Hooyman, N. R. (2006). Achieving curricular and organizational change: Impact of the CSWE geriatric enrichment in social work education project. Council on Social Work Education.

Houser, A. and Gibson, M. J. (2008). Valuing the invaluable: The economic value of family caregiving, 2008 update [on line]. Available from

Houser, A., Fox-Gage, W. and Gibson, M. J. (2009). Across the states in 2009: Profiles of long-term care and independent living [on line]. Available from

Hudson, R. B. (2002). Workers of color and pathways to retirement. In Hudson, R. B. (ed.). Public Policy and Aging Report, Spring 2002. Washington, DC: Gerontological Society of America.

Hyduk, C. A. (2002). Community-based long-term care case management models for older adults. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 37, 1, pp. 19-47.

Ikegami, N. and Campbell, J. C. (2002). Choices, policy logics and problems in the design of long–term care systems. Social Policy & Administration, 36, 7, pp. 719-734.

Itzhaky, H. and York, A. S. (2000a). Empowerment and community participation: Does gender make a difference? Social Work Research, 24, 4, pp. 225-234.

Itzhaky, H. and York, A. S. (2000b). Sociopolitical control and empowerment: An extended replication. Journal of Community Psychology, 28, 4, pp. 407–415.

Kaiser Family Foundation. (2010). Health Care Reform and the CLASS Act. Washington, DC: Kaiser Family Foundation. Available from

Kane, R. A. (2012). Thirty years of home-and community-based services: Getting closer and closer to home. Generations, 36, 1, pp. 6-13.

Kelsey, S. G. and Laditka, S. B. (2009). Evaluating the roles of professional geriatric care managers in maintaining the quality of life in older americans. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 52, 3, pp. 261-276. PMid:19308831

Knickman, J. R. and Snell, E. K. (2002). The 2030 problem: Caring for aging baby boomers. Health Services Research, 37, pp. 849-884. PMid:12236388 PMCid:PMC1464018

Knickman, J. and Snell, E. (2008). The 2030 problem: Caring for aging baby boomers". In Harrington, C., Estes, C. and Crawford, C. (eds.). Health policy: Crisis and reform in the U.S. health delivery system (4th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett, pp. 114-122.

Komisar, H. and Thompson, L. S. (2007). National spending for long-term care. Washington DC: Georgetown University

Long-Term Care Financing Project. Available from

Leading Age. (2013). About Leading Age [on line]. [Date of consulting: September 30, 2013]. Available from

Lehning, A. J., Scharlach, A. E. and Wolf, J. P. (2012). An emerging typology of community aging initiatives. Journal of Community Practice, 20, pp. 293-316.

Mason, S. E. and Sanders, G. R. (2004). Social work student attitudes on working with older clients. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 42, pp. 61-75.

McDonough, K. E. and Davitt, J. K. (2011). It takes a village: Community practice, social work, and aging-in-place. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 5, 5, pp. 528-541. PMid:21714619

Montgomery, R. J. V. (1999). The family role in the context of long-term care. Journal of Aging and Health, 11, 3, pp. 401-434.

Moon, A., Wilson, S., Takahashi, N., Damron-Rodriguez, J. and Goodman, C. (2008). CalSWEC Aging Initiative labor force survey I: Public services for older adults [on line]. Available from:

National Association for Home Care and Hospice. (2008). Basic statistics about home care. Washington, DC: NAHCH [on line]. [Date of consulting: December 31, 2009]. Available from:

National Association of Social Workers (NASW). (2005). Assuring the sufficiency of a frontline workforce: A national study of licensed social workers. Special report: Social work services for older adults. Washington, DC: NASW.

Onder, G., Finne-Soveri, H., Soldato, M., Liperoti, R., Lattanzio, F., Bernabei, R. and Landi, F. (2009). Distress of caregivers of older adults receiving home care in european countries: Results from the AgeD in HOme care study. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 7, 10, pp. 899-906.

Parker, L. and Betz, D. (1996). Diverse partners in planning and decision making, Community ventures. Circular Series, WSU Cooperative Extension Bulletin. Pullman, WA: Washington State University.

Passel, J. S. and Cohn, D'V. (2008). US population projections, 2005-2050. Pew Research Center.

Peak, T., Toseland, R. W. and Banks, S. M. (1995). The impact of a spouse-caregiver support group on care recipient health care costs. Journal of Aging and Health, 7, 3, pp. 427-449.

Price, R. H. and Behrens, T. (2003). Working Pasteur's quadrant: Harnessing science and action for community change. American Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 3-4, pp. 219-223.

Rizzo, V. M. and Rowe, J. M. (2006). Studies of the cost-effectiveness of social work services in aging: A review of the literature. Research on Social Work Practice, 16, 1, pp. 67-73.

Sampson, R. J. and Raudenbush, S. W. (1999). Systematic social observation of public spaces: A new look at disorder in urban neighborhoods. American Journal of Sociology, 105, pp. 603-651.

Scharlach, A. (1999). Special topics in human development: The aging process. In Richardson, V. (ed.). Teaching gerontological social work: A compendium of model syllabi. Alexandria, VA: Council on Social Work Education.

Scharlach, A. (2009). Frameworks for fostering aging-friendly community change. Generations, 33, 2, pp. 71-73.

Scharlach, A., Damron-Rodriguez, J. A., Robinson, B. and Feldman, R. (2000). Educating social workers for an aging society: A vision for the twenty-first century. Journal of Social Work Education, 36, pp. 521-538.

Scharlach, A. (2002). Direct practice in aging settings. In Kropf, N. and Tompkins, C. (eds.). Teaching aging. Alexandria, VA: Council on Social Work Education.

Scharlach, A., Giunta, N., Chow, J. and Lehning, A. (2008). Racial and ethnic variations in caregiver service use. Journal of Aging and Health, 20, pp. 320-346. PMid:18332187

Scharlach, A., Giunta, N., Robinson, B. and Dal Santo, T. (2003). Care management in long-term care insurance; Meeting the needs of policyholders? Care Management Journal, 4, 2, pp. 73-81.

Scharlach, A., Graham, C. and Lehning, A. (2012). The "village" model: A consumer-driven approach for aging in place. The Gerontologist, 52, 3, pp. 418-427. PMid:21873280

Scharlach, A., Graham, C. and Berridge, C. (2012). ElderHelp Concierge Club evaluation. Unpublished report available from the University of California at Berkeley, Center for the Advanced Study of Aging Services.

Scharlach, A., Kellam, R., Ong, N., Baskin, A., Goldstein, C. and Fox, P. (2006). Cultural attitudes and caregiver service use: Lessons from focus groups with racially and ethnically diverse family caregivers. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 47, 1-2, pp. 133-156. PMid:16901881

Scharlach, A. and Lehning, A. (2012). Government's role in aging and long-term care. In J. Hacker, J. O'Leary, A. (eds.). Shared risks, shared responsibilities: Government, markets and social policy in the twenty-first century. New York: Oxford University Press.

Scharlach, A. and Robinson, B. (2005). The Consortium for Social Work Training in Aging: Scools of social work in partnership with country departments of adult and aging services. Journal of Social Work Education, 41, 3, pp. 427-440.

Scharlach, A., Simon, J. and Dal Santo, T. (2002). Who is providing social services today older adults: Implications of a survey of aging services personnel. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 38, 4, pp. 5-17.

Seperson, S. B. (2002). Demographics about aging. In Seperson, S. B. and Hegeman, C. R. (eds.), Elder care and service learning: A handbook. Westport, CT: Auburn House, pp. 17-30.

Shea, D., Davey, A., Femia, E. E., Zarit, S. H., Sundström, G., Berg, S. and Smyer, M. A. (2003). Exploring assistance in Sweden and the United States. The Gerontologist, 43, 5, pp. 712-721.

Shier, G., Ginsburg, M., Howell, J., Volland, P. and Golden, R. (2013). Strong social support services, such as transportation and help for caregivers, can lead to lower health care use and costs. Health Affairs, 32, 3, pp. 544-551. PMid:23459734

Shirk, C. (2006). Rebalancing long-term care: The role of the Medicaid HCBS Waiver Program. National Health Policy Forum. Available from:

Soldo, B. J., Mitchell, O. S., Tfaily, R. and McCabe, J. F. (2006). Cross-cohort differences in health on the verge of retirement. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 12762. Downloaded from

Tourigny, A., Durand, P. J., Bonin, L., Hébert, R. and Rochette, L. (2004). Quasi-experimental study of the effectiveness of an integrated service delivery network for the frail elderly. Canadian Journal on Aging, 23, 3, pp. 231-246.

United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. (2005). World population prospects. The 2004 revision. New York: United Nations.

U. S. Administration on Aging. (2012). Older Americans Act and the aging network. Downloaded from

U. S. Census Bureau (2010). The next four decades: The older population in the United States: 2010 to 2050. U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, No. 1138. Downloaded from

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1998). Informal caregiving: Compassion in action. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [on line]. [Date of consulting July 20, 2009]. Available from:

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2006). The supply and demand of professional social workers providing long-term care services: Report to Congress. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services.

Vincent, G. and Velkoff, V. (2010). The next four decades: The older population in the United States 2010 to 2050. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

Whitfield, K. E. and Hayward, M. (2003). The landscape of health disparities among older adults. Public Policy & Aging Report, 13, 3, pp. 1-7.

Zimmerman, M. A. and Rappaport, J. (1988). Citizen participation, perceived control, and psychological empowerment. American Journal of Community Psychology, 16, pp. 725–750.



Cómo citar

Scharlach, A. E. (2015). Trabajo Social con los mayores en los Estados Unidos. Arbor, 191(771), a207.