Actitudes y conductas públicas ante la COVID-19 en Estados Unidos: estudio de un caso en orden a la comprensión de un sistema político polarizado

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3989/arbor.2022.806008

Palabras clave:

COVID-19, polarización política, EE.UU., Generación X

Resumen


¿Cómo reacciona la ciudadanía en un sistema político polarizado ante una emergencia como la pandemia de la COVID-19?, ¿cómo procesa la ciudadanía las narrativas polarizadas que están en conflicto?, y ¿qué imagen se forman de la gestión política de la amenaza de la pandemia? En EE. UU, hay que retrotraerse a la epidemia de la polio de hace 70 años para encontrar una emergencia sanitaria como la pandemia de la COVID-19. No obstante, hay importantes diferencias; en la década de 1950, el clima político de los EE.UU. era mucho más uniforme y consensuado que el actual, profundamente dividido y polarizado. Este trabajo utiliza datos de un estudio longitudinal realizado durante 35 años en personas jóvenes de la Generación X (ahora ya en la cuarentena) y datos provenientes de encuestas realizadas en Estados Unidos durante tres décadas, con el propósito de examinar los patrones de adquisición de la información en la comprensión de una nueva amenaza. Nuestro análisis de los últimos 35 años de la Generación X muestra que, en las elecciones de 2020, el factor predictivo del voto individual que tuvo más fuerza fue una ideología política polarizada, pero, aquellas personas que contaban con una mejor comprensión del coronavirus fueron más críticas con la gestión de la pandemia de la COVID-19 que realizó la administración de Donald Trump y estuvieron más predispuestas a votar por Joe Biden que a votar por Trump. Un análisis paralelo de una muestra probabilística representativa de personas adultas estadounidenses en 2020 reveló el mismo patrón de influencia del partidismo ideológico, la comprensión del coronavirus y la evaluación de la administración de Trump. Los resultados muestran que el conocimiento y la comprensión pueden proporcionar un efecto moderador crítico en un sistema político polarizado y dividido.

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Publicado

2022-12-30

Cómo citar

Miller, J. D. ., Woods, L. T. ., & Kalmbach, J. . (2022). Actitudes y conductas públicas ante la COVID-19 en Estados Unidos: estudio de un caso en orden a la comprensión de un sistema político polarizado. Arbor, 198(806), a678. https://doi.org/10.3989/arbor.2022.806008

Número

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Artículos

Datos de los fondos

National Science Foundation
Números de la subvención MDR8550085;REC96-27669;RED-9909569;REC-0337487;DUE-0525357;DUE-0712842;DUE-0856695;DRL-0917535;HRD-1348619

National Institute on Aging
Números de la subvención 5R01AG049624-02

National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Números de la subvención NNX16AC66A