Arbor, Vol 196, No 795 (2020)

Las micotoxinas: el enemigo silencioso

Antonio Javier Ramos Girona
Universitat de Lleida, España

Sonia Marín Sillué
Universitat de Lleida, España

Francisco Molino Gahete
Universitat de Lleida, España

Pilar Vila Donat
Universitat de Lleida, España

Vicente Sanchis Almenar
Universitat de Lleida, España


Las micotoxinas son metabolitos fúngicos secunda­rios que pueden ejercer un efecto tóxico tanto en el hombre como en los animales debido, principalmente, a su exposición a través de los alimentos. La presencia de estos compuestos ha sido demostrada en una amplia variedad de materias primas, alimentos y piensos, en los que lo habitual es encontrar de for­ma frecuente una contaminación múltiple por diferentes mico­toxinas, en pequeñas cantidades, lo que puede generar efectos tóxicos subcrónicos, así como bioacumulación. Este artículo revisa los principales elementos que configuran la problemática de las micotoxinas para el hombre y los animales, y aborda los retos de futuro que se plantean en el estudio de las micotoxinas, entre los que destacan el efecto que el cambio climático puede tener sobre el patrón de contaminación por micotoxinas en los alimentos, el descubrimiento creciente de nuevas micotoxinas en formas modificadas, la evaluación de la coexistencia de estas to­xinas y otros contaminantes, y las formas para detectar e intentar eliminar estos compuestos tóxicos de los alimentos.

Palabras clave

micotoxinas; aflatoxinas; mohos filamentosos; cambio climático; exposición; detoxificación

Texto completo:



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