Bacteriófagos y endolisinas en la industria alimentaria



Palabras clave:

bacteriófago, endolisina, antimicrobiano, resistencia antimicrobiana, bacteria patógena, sostenibilidad


La obtención de alimentos sanos y seguros requiere de técnicas de conservación inocuas para el consumidor y para el me­dio ambiente, entre las que se destaca la bioconservación. A su ca­tálogo de compuestos naturales o microorganismos, utilizados de forma habitual, la bioconservación ha incorporado recientemente los bacteriófagos (fagos) y las proteínas fágicas con actividad lítica (endolisinas). La utilización de fagos y endolisinas en el biocontrol ofrece importantes ventajas frente a otros sistemas de conserva­ción tradicionales. Entre dichas ventajas destacan su inocuidad, especificidad y versatilidad. Por otra parte, la acuciante necesidad de reducir el uso de antibióticos en la cadena alimentaria ha impul­sado la investigación basada en estos antimicrobianos con el fin de aplicarlos en producción primaria (terapia fágica). Sin embargo, y a pesar de la gran eficacia ya demostrada en múltiples sectores, la falta de legislación de la Unión Europea sobre el uso de bacteriófa­gos junto con la necesidad de ser aceptados por los consumidores, son factores que están afectando negativamente a su implantación como bioconservantes. En este contexto, este artículo recoge los últimos resultados relacionados con este tipo de antimicrobianos en la industria agro-alimentaria, y resume los puntos clave para entender las posibilidades reales de su aplicación ante los nuevos requisitos asociados con una producción sostenible tanto desde una perspectiva económica como ambiental


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Cómo citar

Gutiérrez Fernández, D., Fernández Llamas, L., Rodríguez González, A., & García Suárez, P. (2020). Bacteriófagos y endolisinas en la industria alimentaria. Arbor, 196(795), a544.